Category Archives: Radiance Services

Hair & Scalp Problems

Scalp Diseases
The scalp is home to many diseases. Some of them are associated with hair loss, with possible impairment of the patient’s self-esteem
and quality of life. Therefore, the longer it takes to find the correct diagnosis and treatment of scalp diseases, the greater the problem and its consequences.

The flaking of the scalp is popularly known as dandruff. Despite being closely associated with seborrhea, dandruff can be a sign of other scalp diseases.
The main causes of dandruff are:

  • seborrheic dermatitis;
  • psoriasis;
  • allergy or contact dermatitis;
  • sun or chemical burn;
  • ringworm.

As this is a non-specific sign, it is essential to assess the presence of other signs and symptoms associated with dandruff.

Redness of the scalp

A red scalp can be a normal feature of very fair people or a sign of inflammation. The dermatitis of the scalp are inflammatory conditions that may or may not be accompanied by symptoms such as pain, burning, dandruff, pimples, sores and hair loss. In some cases, redness, also called erythema, can evolve with scarring and permanent hair loss.

Some scalp diseases that can be present with redness include:

  • Seborrheic dermatitis;
  • Psoriasis;
  • Eczema;
  • Burns;
  • Infections;
  • Folliculitis;
  • Scarring Alopecia.

Redness can be a sign of scalp diseases that lead to hair loss and permanent hair loss. Therefore, it is always recommended to assess the redness of the scalp as soon as possible.

Trichodynia: scalp pain
Although it can be extremely uncomfortable, pain is a subjective symptom. Therefore, there are several ways used by patients to describe scalp pain. Some talk about stabbing pain, stinging, pinching, tingling, prickling, burning, throbbing pain, among others. There are also those who only say that their scalp is sensitive to touch or hair manipulation. The picture of pain in the scalp is much more nonspecific than other signs and symptoms of this location.

Thus, its possibilities of causes are also broader, including scalp diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Among the main causes of scalp we have:

  • Seborrheic dermatitis;
  • Eczema;
  • Burns;
  • Hairstyle or mega hair traction;
  • Infections;
  • Folliculitis;
  • alopecia scarring;
  • Headache or headache;
  • Dysthesias;
  • Anxiety disorder;
  • Trichotillomania;
  • Fibromyalgia.

Another very frequent complaint involving the scalp is itching. When mild and sporadic, itchy scalp is not usually a major concern. But when itching starts to affect people’s daily lives or is accompanied by other symptoms such as dandruff, pain or hair loss, it can then become a problem.

Among the scalp diseases that cause itching are:

  • Seborrheic dermatitis;
  • Pediculosis or lice;
  • Allergy;
  • Ringworm;
  • Bacterial infections;
  • Folliculitis.

Although almost involuntary, the act of scratching the head can contribute to the worsening and perpetuation of the itching. Thus, in addition to avoiding manipulation of the scalp, it is advisable to look for a specialist doctor to detect and treat the problem.

Hair Problems
Human hair is a keratinized structure that has three stages in its normal development (hair cycle):

Anagen (or growth) phase
That lasts between two and six years. Hair grows and grows an inch a month on average. The follicle has a permanent activity. 90% of hair is at this stage.





Catagen (or resting) phase
It is a stability phase that usually takes about three weeks. The hair stops growing and separates from the papilla.





Telogen (or fall) phase
At this stage the follicle rests and starts to fall. It’s a period that lasts about 2-5 months.



Hair Follicle
It basically contains the hair, which is a keratinized structure that rests from an epidermal invagination to its depth (dermal papilla), which is where it receives cellular nutrition. The content excreted by the glands ends up in the infundibulum:


Sweat Glands
They control temperature, excreting water and other substances (salt, ammonia, uric acid, urea, lactic acid). In addition, they have an odorous function, by secreting a substance that quickly contaminates and generates our characteristic odor.

Sebaceous Glands
They produce lipids that help maintain the outer protective layer.

Each hair grows from a hair follicle and each hair follicle continues its own cycle, which is independent of those around it. Therefore, at any given time, each hair is at a different stage of its life cycle . On the scalp of a person without alopecia there are between 100,000 and 150,000 hairs, of which 85%-90% are in the anagen phase or growth period, 1-2% in the catagen or resting phase and 13-14% in the telogen phase or of fall.


Hair Loss
We know that out of every 100 hair we have, there is always 12-15% changing, and it can take about four years to completely renew our hair.

On average, about 70-100 hairs are lost in a day, which under normal conditions are replaced by new ones that create the hair follicle.

We can say that 8 out of 10 people who believe they have alopecia does not have any pathological substrate. What happens is that the restoration of lost hair occurs randomly and not immediately. Therefore, the concept is based more on the renewal of hair follicles than on loss. This process, called telogen effluvium, often shows a seasonal trend and depends on different factors (environment or food).

However, we must also take into account the fact that there are genetic factors that cause this renewal process to have a different speed from the natural fall process that we are all subject to.

Alopecia difusa | Non-citric acid alopecia
Reversible and non-localized loss of a certain part of the scalp.





Alopecia areata | Non-citric acid alopecia
It causes circular marks and is usually reversible.






Traumatic or drug-related alopecia | non-scarring alopecia
Produced by traction or pressure trauma. Also because of trichotillomania, which is the nervous habit of pulling out your hair.





Androgenetic alopecia | Cycatric alopecia
In this type of alopecia, the hair follicle is destroyed. Hair loss is irreversible:

  • Hereditary diseases : Ichthyosis, Darier’s disease, etc.
  • Infectious diseases : Mycotic, bacterial.
  • Neoplastic diseases : Lymphomas, metastases, etc.
  • Dermatosis : Lichen, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, etc.


The Radiance Skin Clinic, in addition to having an appropriate structure for the evaluation and treatment of hair loss and baldness, also has a doctor who specializes in hair and professionals prepared to help with your problem. Make an assessment and get the information and care for your case.

Fillers for Wrinkles & Smooth Skin

One of the most performed aesthetic procedures in the world, facial filling with hyaluronic acid aims to attenuate static wrinkles, which are those that appear even with the face relaxed. In addition, the application of hyaluronic acid promotes skin hydration, corrects asymmetries and imperfections and is the ideal treatment to alleviate facial curves and dark circles, highlight cheekbones and fill in furrows.

What is facial filler?
Facial filling is an aesthetic treatment that uses hyaluronic acid to smooth out wrinkles and furrows, moisturize the skin, enlarge or correct areas of the face, and treat imperfections. Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is already present in the human body, whose main function is to keep the collagen fibers that support the skin alive. Therefore, facial filling is extremely safe, since hyaluronic acid does not pose a risk of rejection.

How is the facial filling done?
First, the patient undergoes a thorough assessment, where the doctor will assess the patient’s face as a whole and identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, as well as other points that need intervention. Then, hyaluronic acid is applied to predetermined areas through a blunt needle, called a microcannula, which allows for a uniform filling and with a more natural result.

Treated skin needs about a week to fully recover. During this period, it is recommended that the patient avoid sun exposure and the use of makeup, in addition to other recommendations given by the doctor, depending on each case. But generally speaking, it is not necessary to interrupt everyday

How long does the filling with hyaluronic acid last?
The effect of hyaluronic acid in the body lasts 20 months on average. Despite being a long-term treatment, the patient needs to undergo maintenance sessions after this period.

Is facial filling safe?
If performed by an experienced physician, in an appropriate environment and with good quality products, facial filling is extremely safe. Furthermore, as hyaluronic acid is a substance that is already present in the human body, it does not pose a risk of rejection.

What areas of the face can be filled in?
The facial filler can be applied to different areas of the face, according to needs and objectives. If the intention is to treat wrinkles, it can be applied to crow’s feet, forehead, puppet lines and wrinkles around the mouth (called bar codes). Hyaluronic acid can also be applied to the nose, to change the shape, correct angulation and make it more harmonious with the rest of the face.

lip filling
Lip filling is another possibility that hyaluronic acid offers. In addition to cosmetic corrections for those who have thin lips and want more volume, or for those whose lower lips are disproportionate to the upper ones, filling with hyaluronic acid can also be used to replace the volume of the lips due to trauma or genetics, promoting not only aesthetic benefits , but contributing a lot to improve the patients self-esteem.

Facial matching
Facial harmonization is a set of procedures whose main objective is to promote an aesthetic and functional balance throughout the face. Within this set, facial filling with hyaluronic acid is one of the most used techniques.

The first results of filling with hyaluronic acid appear immediately after application. However, they become more visible about a week after the session.

How much does facial filling cost?
It is not possible to determine a single value for facial filling, as the technique is personalized for each patient, according to their goals and needs. Therefore, an evaluation with a physician is essential to determine the value of facial filling with hyaluronic acid.

Botox for Wrinkles & Smooth Skin

What is Botox?
Botulinum Toxin smoothes wrinkles and expression lines

Botulinum Toxin, also known as Botox, is the best and safest rejuvenation method, prevents the appearance of new expression lines and controls existing brands. The Botox is the main toxin to combat the existing lines and facial markings. It works very efficiently in the rejuvenation process.

Indicated for men and women, Botox works in the treatment of wrinkles on the forehead, glabella, crow’s feet and eyes. The main benefit of Botox is, in fact, the continuous treatment of these expression lines mentioned.

What is Botox for?
Botox is indicated for men and women who want to treat wrinkles on the glabella (between the eyebrows), wrinkles on the forehead, around the lips and crow's feet (eye area). The treatment with Botox is also indicated for those who want to raise their eyebrows , open their eyes (Westernization of the Orientals), lift the tip of the nose, lift the corner of the mouth, correct the gummy smile and for the treatment of hyperhidrosis (excess of sweating ) in the armpits, hands and feet.

Benefits of Botox?
In addition to treating wrinkles and expression lines, botox has a preventive effect on these marks. For some it may seem like an exaggeration to apply it to young people, but it is not. If the person does a lot of facial mimicry, the temporary relaxation of the muscles provided by Botox ends
up reducing muscle movement and, consequently, the habit of contracting parts of the face responsible for expression wrinkles is lost.

About Treatment
How does Botox work?
The Botox is injected through a fine needle at specific points of facial muscles responsible for movement. The substance is diluted with saline solution. And it can only be performed by a doctor.

Duration of treatment
The procedure takes an average of 30 minutes. The action of botox starts after 48 hours of application, reaching its maximum result in up to 15 days. The duration of this result is around 6 months.

Care after treatment
Recovery is immediate. Some clients may get small bruises. It is advisable not to lie down, lower your head or massage the region or travel by plane within 4 hours of the application, and practice physical activity only after 48 hours.

Contraindications for Botox
Botox is not indicated for pregnant women, who are breastfeeding, or people who are using aminoglycoside antibiotics.

Common Questions
After applying Botox, is the face expressionless?
No. Botox works by relaxing the muscles in the region where it was injected. The degree of relaxation can be more or less intense depending on the dosage used and the application plan.

Are the effects of Botox immediate?
No. Only after a week will the effects be more fully noticed. The application is valid for approximately 4 to 6 months, depending on the individual response of each person, the application technique and dosage.

Is the application of Botox painful?
The application is practically painless and usually done with very fine needles (type of insulin). For more sensitive people, a local topical anesthetic can be used.

Can Botox be used to enhance lips?
No, Botox serves to relax the muscles where it is injected, treating expression wrinkles, such as those that form around the mouth. The treatment indicated to increase the volume of the lips is lip filling which, in addition to volume, can also be used to redefine the contour.

Botox addictive?
There is no scientific evidence that the application of Botox causes addiction or addiction. Is Botox only indicated to correct wrinkles?
No. Botox is also indicated for the correction of strabismus, blepharospasm, dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions), spasticity (motor disorder) and palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

Can Botox replace plastic surgery?
No. Botox can complement plastic surgery, making it less invasive. Applications can postpone the need for surgical intervention, as in addition to attenuating expression wrinkles, they can prevent the appearance of new wrinkles by re-educating facial expressions.

Is Botox the same thing as filling?
No. Although the two procedures are intended to combat skin aging, they are different in nature and purpose. Botox smoothes wrinkles and expression marks by relaxing the muscle, while the filling consists of the injection of hyaluronic acid to fill wrinkles and furrows.

What is the minimum age to apply Botox?
There is no minimum age to apply Botox. The most important thing is to have the proper indication for the procedure.

Is it possible to replace Botox with anti-aging creams?
Not! Anti-aging creams offer many benefits depending on their composition, but none of them provide muscle relaxation and smoothing out wrinkles. Both are complementary treatments to combat skin aging, but they are not replaceable.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

What are sexually transmitted diseases?
It is known as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) those that are transmitted through sex.

How can you prevent STDs?

  • The more sexual partners you have, the greater your risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Most sexually transmitted diseases can be prevented by practicing safer sex, for example using a condom.
  • Most STDs can be cured if diagnosed and treated in the early stages.

Briefly below describes the most common sexually transmitted diseases.

Chlamydia infections
Chlamydia are among the germs, the main culprits of sexually transmitted diseases in developed countries. Chlamydia trachomatis is the representative of this group of microorganisms that have the greatest importance. These germs have intermediate properties between viruses and bacteria, and are characterized by being highly contagious.

Despite producing STDs, chlamydia in particular can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth and cause infections in newborns. Chlamydia infections usually start appearing 7-21 days after the infection occurs and the symptoms they cause are different in men, women and children.

In males occur:

  • Urethritis (inflammation of the urethra)
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Color mucus secretion and itching in the penis
  • Pain in the testicles.

In women occur:

  • Pain and burning when urinating
  • vaginal discharge
  • Swelling and pain in the pelvis (pelvic inflammatory disease)
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • In some cases, metrorrhagia (abnormal vaginal bleeding)
  • Premature birth.

In newborns occur:

  • Conjunctivitis
  • Breathing problems and, rarely, pneumonia.

These infections, as well as other sexually transmitted diseases, are usually diagnosed by a dermatologist or urologist in the case of men or a gynecologist in the case of women. Chlamydia infections are usually diagnosed by taking a sample of secretions from Organs infected organs, which are then sent to a laboratory for analysis. Treatment consists of antibiotics, which must also be given to the patient's sexual partners. Once the treatment is to repeat the analysis of the secretions from Organs affected organs to see if healing has taken place or not.

Gonorrhea is an infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that grows and multiplies quickly in areas where there is moisture in the body, such as the cervix, urethra, mouth or rectum. In women, gonorrhea mainly occurs in the cervix, but sometimes the infection spreads to the uterus itself and the fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease, which in turn can lead to infertility.

Gonorrhea is mainly transmitted through genital contact, but transmission is possible from the genitals to the throat through oral sex. In people who practice anal intercourse it can occur for gonorrhea in the rectum. Pregnant women can transmit the infection to their babies during delivery, but these babies only develop the disease if it is not treated.

Symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear two to ten days after the infection occurs. However, in many cases, especially in women, the infection goes completely unnoticed or causes very little discomfort.

The following are the most common symptoms of gonorrhea in women:

  • Pain and burning when urinating
  • Yellowish or bloody vaginal discharge
  • Metrorrhagia (uterine bleeding)
  • Abdominal pain.

The main symptoms that cause gonorrhea in men include:

  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Yellowish-white secretions on the penis. Yellowish-white secretions on the penis.

When gonorrhea reaches the rectum, it occurs:

  • Itching in the anal region
  • Testimonials of purulent material
  • Painful evacuations.

The diagnosis of gonorrhea is made by detecting the responsible bacteria obtained by scraping the urethra, cervix, throat or rectum. Treatment consists of antibiotics, which must also be given to the patient's sexual partners. Once the treatment is to repeat the analysis of the secretions from Organs affected organs to see if the cure is complete.

Genital Herpes
Genital herpes is a highly contagious STD caused by the herpes simplex type 2 virus. It mainly affects the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals and rectum, but it can also occur in other areas such as the mouth. It is spread mainly through physical and sexual contact.

When this infection occurs in a pregnant woman's genitals, there is a risk that her child will be infected with the virus during childbirth. The virus in the newborn can cause chronic skin infection, and more serious, such as herpetic meningitis. Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection usually begin about a week after the infection occurs, but sometimes take longer to appear.

Initially, the skin of the affected region may be seen increased sensitivity, tingling, burning and pain. Then the area becomes red, and the same that appear multiple vesicles containing a clear yellowish fluid. Thereafter, the vesicles rupture and become painful ulcers on which a scab forms. Finally, after 7-14 days of evolution, there is no healing of injuries.

Coinciding with the rash can be other symptoms, which include:

  • Swelling and pain in the lymph nodes in the groin
  • In women, vaginal discharge and pain when urinating
  • In men it can also cause pain when urinating if there is damage in the vicinity of the urethra.
  • Fever.

In most cases, inspecting the skin lesions is sufficient to diagnose herpes simplex virus infection. There is no choice but to permanently cure the infection and the people who get it are still carrying a life. However, there are treatments that reduce the duration of the rash. Also, if given the antiviral acyclovir when the image is starting, that is, before the bubbles appear, the process can be aborted. To prevent the spread of infection, it is essential to avoid direct contact with injuries. People with genital herpes should avoid sexual intercourse when the disease is active.

Those who have genital herpes, although the infection is inactive, must inform their sexual partners, in the process, to suffer. This is likely to promote condom use and thus reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Another helpful measure to avoid passing on herpes simplex virus infection is to avoid sharing towels.

AIDS is the most serious STD, and it is produced by HIV. This virus infects and destroys the cells of the immune system, which are responsible for defending the body against infections.

Therefore, people with HIV are predisposed to many illnesses, including infections due to a damaged immune system. These illnesses can lead to death. People addicted to parenteral (injectable) drugs and those who are promiscuous in their sexual relationships are at higher risk of contracting HIV. AIDS is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Caribbean islands. HIV is found primarily in blood and some other biological fluids such as semen or vaginal secretions, and is able to pass from one person to another through small lesions of the skin or mucous membranes, such as those normally produced during intercourse.

Symptoms that can occur in patients with HIV infection are varied, and include:

  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • night sweats
  • Weight loss
  • Lymphadenopathy (lymph nodes)
  • Malaise.

Diagnosis of HIV infection is usually made by detecting the virus antibody in the blood. Its detection is possible 2-8 weeks after infection. In case of exposure to HIV a determination of such antibodies is recommended as soon as possible. If the result is positive since then, it means that the patient had already been infected. If negative, repeat testing is recommended at three and six months. If either of the two occasions the result is positive, further analysis must be performed to confirm the infection and, if in both cases it is negative, the infection can be ruled out. To make the diagnosis more quickly after exposure to the virus can be the determination of RNA (ribonucleic acid) of HIV in the blood, since its onset is earlier than antibodies.

When there is exposure to HIV, and until it is completely ruled out by the same infection, it is essential to use condoms during sexual intercourse. There is no treatment to completely cure HIV infection, but there are drugs now starting to alleviate the virus so that patients who take it correctly will not develop AIDS-associated illnesses. All HIV-infected patients must use condoms during sex, and they must report their HIV status to all sexual partners they have had.

Genital Warts

  • Genital warts or condylomas acuminata are caused by the human papilloma virus. After this infection occurs, it can take up to nine months to develop.
  • In women, the human papilloma virus can also cause cervical cancer, so it is very important for proper diagnosis and treatment of this infection.
  • Genital warts appear as rough skin growths. There may be a single wart, or many.
  • In men they usually appear on the tip of the penis.
  • In women normally present in the vagina or vulva, although its extension to the anus is possible. They can also occur on the cervix, although at this location they generally look flat and are whitish, and their diagnosis is only possible by colposcopy (examination which modality allows for direct visualization of the cervix).
  • In both men and women these warts can also develop in the mouth and throat.
  • These warts are very contagious, so sufferers should have protected sex with a condom.
  • Diagnosis of this disease is made simply by inspecting the warts. When the lesions are not clearly visible, its diagnosis is also possible, through the application of 5% acetic acid, which affected the skin to turn white.
  • Genital warts can be treated with podophyllin (resin extract) applied directly to the wart, with surgical excision, cryotherapy (freezing wart destruction) and other ways. Generally, these treatments the dermatologist applies.
  • It should be noted that the cure for genital warts is not always easy, and it is often not possible to completely eliminate it.

Syphilis is an STD caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The manifestations of this disease can be severe in some cases, as it occurs after the infection from the bacteria enters the bloodstream and can affect vital organs such as the heart, brain or spinal cord. Syphilis manifestations are classified into three stages:

Primary Syphilis

  • It occurs within the first 12 weeks after infection occurs.
  • One or more red sores appear on the penis, lips, anus or, more rarely, the mouth or lips.
  • Wounds heal without treatment within a week.

Secondary Syphilis

  • Occurs within the first 6 months after infection occurs.
  • A rash on the chest, back, legs, palms and soles of the feet.
  • High fever
  • Pharyngitis
  • Muscle aches
  • Malaise.

If you have this set of symptoms, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. If a patient with secondary syphilis is left untreated, the disease may initially resolve, but the infection continues to attenuate in the body and may reappear later, sometimes even 20 years later, in the manner described below, such as higher education syphilis.

Late or tertiary syphilis

  • Involvement of the aorta (syphilitic aortitis), such as aneurysms (bulges in the artery balloon that can rupture leading to massive and fatal hemorrhage)
  • Aortic valve involvement (aortic insufficiency)
  • Cardiac insufficiency
  • Paralysis
  • Insanity
  • The death.

The diagnosis of syphilis is made by detecting the responsible germ in the secretions obtained from skin lesions, or by detecting antibodies against the pathogen in the blood. In the early stages, syphilis is easily treated with antibiotics.

Prevention of STDs
ETS is effectively prevented by avoiding exposure to risks and having sex with proper precautions. The following recommendations apply in all cases:

  • While it’s obvious to say, and not always desirable behavior, abstinence is the only sure way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
  • It is very desirable to avoid having sex with too many different people.
  • It is very advisable to use a condom every time you have sex.

Leukoderma and Vitiligo

Vitiligo and Leucoderma are two common skin conditions characterized by an external white spot on the skin. It is often difficult to tell the difference between Vitiligo and Leucoderma.

What is Vitiligo?
This is a long-term skin condition that is characterized by pale white patches that develop on the skin due to a lack of skin pigmentation known as Melanin. Vitiligo can affect any part of our skin, but it usually involves the area that is extensively exposed to the sun, including the face, neck and hands. Although the exact aetiology of this condition is not clearly known, it is believed that certain autoimmune conditions and underlying health problems related to nerve endings, sudden emotional trauma and stress are increasing the risk. Other causes of vitiligo can be regular consumption of vegetables and fruits treated with insecticide / pesticide, recurrent episodes of jaundice or typhoid, treatment with heavy antibiotics, treatment with corticosteroids and poor personal hygiene.

In 50% of affected individuals, the initial skin changes would appear before age 20, but not as a general rule. Men and women are equally affected, and there is no known prevalence in any ethnicity.

This condition can usually be accurately diagnosed by taking a complete patient history and having a thorough physical examination of the affected areas of the skin. This is mainly done using an ultraviolet lamp, which shines on the skin to get a better view and rule out other skin conditions. Other tests will also be performed to rule out conditions such as Diabetes or Hyperthyroidism.

White patches on the skin caused by vitiligo do not have a permanent cure, but the appearance can be improved with certain medications. In fact, relatively small blemishes can be hidden with skin camouflage creams or cosmetic concealers. In addition, severe and extensive blemishes can be treated with a combination of treatments, including phototherapy and medication.

However, as the spread of the disease cannot be completely stopped, it is important to advise affected individuals to minimize exposure to sunlight to avoid negative outcomes. With regard to Vitiligo complications, a lack of Melanin can result in sunburn and may increase the risk of skin cancer caused by chronic exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. In addition, some individuals may be affected by lack of pigmentation in the eyes and partial hearing loss, known as hypoacusis.

Furthermore, this can also result in problems related to confidence and self-esteem, so it is highly important to get social support from such social and charitable services in order to change the negative attitudes of the community towards Vitiligo.

What is Leucoderma?
Leucoderma is basically a depigmentation of the skin marked by the location or eventual destruction of melanocytes. The characteristic white patches are narrowly limited on the skin compared to vitiligo. Some people even suggest that Vitiligo is a form of Leucoderma, but there is no scientific evidence to support it.

Common causes of Leucoderma include traumatic incidents such as accidental cuts, burns and ulcers, where the end result would be scarring, thus resulting in a gradual development of a white patch.

Leukoderma is primarily identified by white patches that would be located in smaller areas at first, but tend to dilate over time. Most of these skin changes begin to be noticed around the age of 10 and 30 years and would be most noticeable in people with dark brown skin. The main objective of the treatment includes the correction of metabolism, improving immunity, increasing the capacity of possible pigmentation on the affected area.
Difference between vitiligo and leucodermia

Clinical Features
With regard to the clinical presentation, both Vitiligo and Leucoderma consist of white patches that can only be differentiated by cause. But, in some patients, raised spots may be evident in leucodermia without the use of a light source, although it is very difficult to differentiate between

Vitiligo is primarily caused by autoimmune conditions, hormonal changes, acute emotional trauma or stress, recurrent episodes of jaundice or typhoid, prolonged antibiotic treatments or treatment with corticosteroids.

Leucoderma will occur strictly after physical trauma such as a cut, burn or ulceration. The scar that will ultimately form will turn into a white spot that can sometimes increase in size over time.

Diagnosis and Treatment
Being two clinical diagnoses, a complete history and physical examination especially of skin changes are very important in deciding on the treatment plan. Concealing creams and phototherapy would help in most patients, but their progression cannot be stopped due to their lifelong nature.

Black Spots & Pigmentation

Hyperpigmentation – What are the causes of dark spots and how to reduce them?

Uneven skin pigmentation (or hyperpigmentation as it is commonly known) is a common skin problem. Dark spots – known as age spots or sun-induced spots – or dark areas of skin usually appear on the face, hands and other areas of the body that are regularly exposed to the sun. This article summarizes the different types of hyperpigmentation and explains what causes them. Let’s look at how you can help prevent hyperpigmentation from ever appearing, but also at the steps you can take to reduce blemishes or dark spots after they’ve appeared.

What is hyperpigmentation and what are the different types of this problem?
Hyperpigmentation is the term used to describe areas of skin with uneven pigmentation. Hyperpigmentation manifests as dark spots or areas on the skin that give it an uneven appearance. Spots are known as age spots or sun-induced spots, and hyperpigmentation is also at the root of skin problems like melasma or post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. People with dark skin are usually more affected by hyperpigmentation marks than people with lighter skin tone, because skin pigmentation is stronger in dark skin.

Hyperpigmentation: pigment spots such as age spots Pigment spots such as age spots (which are also known as sun-induced spots) are caused by exposure to the sun. It is for this reason that they appear mainly in areas of the body that are frequently exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, décolleté, hands and arms. They tend to be small patches of darker skin. You can find out more about what causes this problem and find out more about how to reduce it in: “What causes age spots and how can I reduce them?

Hyperpigmentation: melasma
Also known as chloasma, melasma is a skin disorder in which large patches of hyperpigmentation develop, particularly on the face. Although it can affect both men and women, melasma is more common in the latter and is thought to be triggered by changes in hormone levels. Melasma occurs in 10-15% of pregnant women and 10-25% of women taking oral contraceptives and is sometimes called the “pregnancy mask”. Hyperpigmentation: Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation occurs when healing from a skin injury or trauma results in a flat, discolored area. It is common in acne sufferers and can also be caused by cosmetic procedures such as dermabrasion, laser treatment and chemical peels.

There are other factors that can lead to darkening of certain areas of the skin – such as scarring, birthmarks, solar or actinic keratoses and skin cancers – but these processes or disorders are not considered to be forms of hyperpigmentation. Attention Consult your dermatologist or pharmacist if you are concerned about a dark spot or if it starts to bleed, itch or change size or color.

Causes and Triggering Factors
What are the causes and/or triggers of hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation is caused by an increase in melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives color to the skin, hair and eyes. There are some factors that can trigger an increase in melanin production, but the main ones are sun exposure, hormonal influences, age and skin damage or inflammation.
Sun exposure and hyperpigmentation Exposure to the sun is the main cause of hyperpigmentation, because it is sunlight that triggers the production of melanin in the first place. Melanin acts as a natural sunscreen for the skin and protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays, which is why people get tan when exposed to the sun. But excessive exposure to the sun can disrupt this process, leading to hyperpigmentation. Once dark spots have developed, exposure to the sun can also make the problem worse, further darkening age spots (or sun-induced spots), melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation spots.

Hyperpigmentation and hormones
Hormonal influences are the main cause of a particular type of hyperpigmentation known as melasma or chloasma. It is particularly common among women and is thought to occur when estrogen and progesterone, the female sex hormones, stimulate excess melanin production if the skin is exposed to the sun. Hyperpigmentation also constitute a side effect of certain hormonal treatments. Hyperpigmentation and age As the skin ages, the number of melanin-producing cells (known as melanocytes) decreases, but the rest increase in size and their skin distribution becomes less uniform. These physiological changes explain the increase in age spots in people over 40 years of age. You can find out more about how your skin ages in the section on skin aging.

Hyperpigmentation, skin lesions and inflammation
As its name suggests, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation occurs following a skin injury or inflammation, such as: cuts, burns, exposure to chemicals, acne, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. The skin becomes darker and discolored after the lesion has healed.

Hyperpigmentation, disease and medication
Hyperpigmentation is also a symptom of some disorders, such as some autoimmune diseases and gastrointestinal diseases, metabolic disorders and vitamin deficiencies. It can also be triggered by certain types of medication, such as chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, antimalarials, and anticonvulsants.

How can I prevent hyperpigmentation from forming?
Sun protection is the most important step you can take to help prevent hyperpigmentation from ever forming. It's important to remember that the sun's rays affect the skin even on cloudy days, so you should give your skin the daily protection it needs. In addition to reducing hyperpigmentation, Eucerin Anti-Pigment Day Cream SPF 30 ensures effective protection against UVA and UVB (SPS 30) and prevents the further formation of sun-induced pigmentation spots.

Reducing skin exposure to the sun will also help reduce cases of hyperpigmentation. Try not to be out in the sun during the most intense hours of exposure and wear protective clothing including a hat and sunglasses whenever possible. When the skin is exposed to the sun, regularly apply and
reapply a sunscreen product:

  • with an appropriate FPS grade
  • that has been specially formulated for your skin type and condition.

You can find out more about the Eucerin line of products with high sun protection here.

Hyperpigmentation removal: dermatological treatments

Dermatological treatments, such as chemical peels and laser therapy, can help reduce hyperpigmentation:

  • chemical peels involve applying a chemical solution to the face, neck, and hands to exfoliate the skin (ie, remove dead skin cells), stimulate the growth of new skin cells, and reveal new skin. Find out more about chemical peels in: “What are chemical peels and how do they
  • laser therapies have a very similar effect, but are generally more accurate because the dermatologist has more control over the intensity of treatment. These therapies involve “discharges” on the affected areas with high energy light. Milder treatments focus only on the skin’s epidermis (the most superficial layer), while more intense treatments can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin.

Dermatologists may also prescribe and/or use hydroquinone, which is still considered to be the most effective topical agent in reducing hyperpigmentation. This agent, however, can only be used for limited periods of time because, like other forms of chemical peeling and laser treatment, it can irritate the skin and actually cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, especially in people with darker skin.

Acne Related Problems

The Acne is a skin disorder caused by inflammation of the sebaceous gland and hair follicle. The germs, present on the skin, cause an infection in this area with the consequent inflammatory response and the typical appearance of the lesions.

Hormonal, hereditary and psychological factors also influence acne, which increase excess oil in the sebaceous gland.

In general, it affects adolescents and young adults, and tends to resolve over the years. Specifically, in young men it tends to be solved between 20-25 years; while in women, it can persist up to 30-40 years. The most unfavorable prognostic factor is the presence of residual deep scars, which can remain permanently.

What are the symptoms of acne?
Acne manifests itself clinically with various types of lesions, and several of them may occur in the same patient.

The most common symptoms of acne are:

  • Cysts on the skin
  • Comedones
  • Pustules
  • Scars

Common acne lesions can be inflammatory or non-inflammatory.

  • Non-inflammatory: closed and open comedones “blackheads”.
  • Inflammatory: reddish papules, pustules, nodules and cysts.

The cystic acne, nodules and cysts forming, it requires special attention because its evolution can leave residual scars, which are the most important consequence of acne. Some patients might have additional severe types of skin problem such as fever and poor general condition (acne fulminans) and need early general treatment.

Which are the causes of acne?
The common acne vulgaris or occurs when the hair follicles of the skin become clogged by the presence of fat or dead cells. Acne is not caused directly by fat in the diet but, sometimes, the person relates it to certain foods such as chocolate, etc. In these cases, the consumption of these foods should be restricted.

Five factors mainly influence its appearance:
1. Obstruction of the pilosebaceous canal of the hair follicle due to alterations in the keratinization of the stratum corneum of the skin.
2. Increased secretion of the sebaceous glands.
3. Alterations in the bacterial microflora of the skin with the presence of microorganisms such as Propionibacterium acnes.
4. Release of inflammation mediators in the sebaceous hair follicle.
5. Hormonal variations, specifically the presence of androgens.

How does acne evolve?
The common or acne vulgaris is generally a disease that affects adolescents and young adults and tends to resolve over the years. The juvenile acne in young men, it tends to be solved between 20-25 years, while women may persist until 30-40 years. The most unfavorable prognostic factor appears in cystic acne and is the presence of residual deep scars, which can remain permanently.

The acne during pregnancy may appear sporadically by hormonal changes that occur during this stage. Normally, it is enough to take special care of the cleaning of the skin and only in the case that they do not improve, you should consult a specialist to assess the topical pharmacological

How is acne treated?
It is important to assess the type and degree of acne to avoid aesthetic consequences Common acne treatment

Mild acne
Topical treatment is performed with exfoliants (elemental sulfur, salicylic acid, glycolic acid), benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid and retinoids (tretinoin, isotretinoin and adapalene).

Moderate acne
Topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, and antibiotics (clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin base) is performed.

Severe acne
In these cases, systemic treatment with systemic antibiotics (tetracyclines) is necessary for 3 to 6 months. Systemic retinoids (isotretinoin) administered for approximately 5 months allow complete cure in almost all patients. In some patients it is necessary to administer more than one treatment cycle.

Very severe acne

  • Systemic treatment: Isotretinoin associated with systemic corticosteroids or administered directly to the lesions.
  • Surgical treatment: Drainage of cysts or mechanical removal of comedones as complementary treatments.

There are different dermatological treatments to eliminate secondary acne scars, which normally appear when there is cystic acne. These treatments should be performed as long as there are no active acne lesions.

How to remove acne marks or scars?
Among others, we have chemical peels with glycolic acid or other somewhat more aggressive methods such as dermabrasion or CO2 laser, which allow us to improve the appearance of patients. Patients with demonstrated hormonal disturbances (elevated androgen levels) may benefit from antiandrogenic or progesterone-associated estrogen therapy.

General Dermatology

The skin is the largest organ of the human body, dermatology is the specialty in medicine that is responsible for the study of the skin, hair and nails and their diseases. The dermatologist is the one who, after obtaining the title of general medicine, specializes in the study of the skin and its annexes (hair and nails), for the treatment of diseases or for aesthetic purposes.

The work of the dermatologist is to worry about the diagnosis and treatment of the various pathologies that affect the skin, scalp and nails. Among the most frequent reasons for consultation are allergies or dermatitis of different causes, fungi that affect the skin, nails or scalp, warts or herpes caused by viruses, acne, rosacea, benign or malignant tumors, among other less frequent pathologies such as psoriasis, vasculitis, etc.

Dermatologist evaluates patient through an adequate medical history and a thorough examination. Various tools can be used to arrive at a proper diagnosis such as dermoscopy or sometimes laboratory tests or skin biopsy if necessary.

This is the most important step, since according to the evaluation carried out, a medical or surgical treatment is derived (in the case of skin tumors) or a cosmetic treatment is started to improve the appearance of the skin and its annexes (hair and some).